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Osceola Sectional Hero
Fire Rescue & EMS Office
 
Hours
M - F: 8 a.m. - 5 p.m.
 
Phone
(407) 742-7000
 
Address
2586 Partin Settlement Road
Kissimmee, FL 34744

Pediatric Trauma


 
 

General Approach to Trauma - Pediatric

Basic Life Support

  • Stabilize spine
  • Use modified jaw thrust if airway obstructed
  • Supplemental 100% oxygen
    • Including ETCO2 level (35-45 normal)
  • Control active bleeding with direct pressure, hemostatic gauze packing and/or tourniquet, as indicated
  • Perform head-to-toe survey to identify injuries
  • Splint obvious fractures of long bones
  • Prevent loss of body heat

Advanced Life Support

  • If moderate or severe injuries present, perform Full Pediatric ALS Assessment and Treatment
  • Assess for Pediatric Trauma Triage Criteria and initiate transport to State Approved Pediatric Trauma Center (SAPTC) if criteria are met.
  • Assess for Tension Pneumothorax:
    • Severe respiratory distress with hypoxia
    • Unilateral decreased or absent lung sounds (may see tracheal deviation away from collapsed lung field)
    • Evidence of hemodynamic compromise (shock, hypotension, tachycardia, altered mental status)
  • Pleural decompression for tension pneumothorax should be performed when any of the above criteria are present and likelihood of tension pneumothorax exists; decompress at 2nd intercostal space, mid-clavicular line on affected side
  • In the setting of blunt traumatic cardiac arrest with suspected chest trauma, perform
  • bilateral pleural decompressions as part of the resuscitation efforts
  • Initiate transport to an appropriate trauma facility within 10 minutes of patient contact unless extenuating circumstances (extrication)
  • Perform procedures, history and detailed physical examination en route to the hospital
  • Reassess frequently

Burns - Pediatric

Basic Life Support

  • Remove clothing; cool heat source if tar or asphalt; otherwise prevent hypothermia
  •  Cool compress dressings on minor (small area) burns with sterile saline (do not use ice packs)
  •  Dry, clean burn sheet on:
  • 2° burns greater than 10% of Body Surface Area
  • 3° burns
  • Electrical and Chemical burns (after decontamination if indicated)
  • Spinal immobilization if high voltage electrical injuries or lightning injuries
    • If high voltage electrical injury (> 1000 volts) or lightning injury initiate Trauma Alert
  • If chemical burn, refer to Basic Approach to Hazardous Material Exposures Protocol and transport to burn center

Advanced Life Support

  • If moderate or severe pain and no signs of shock (normal cap refill, normal blood pressure for age):
  • Fentanyl (Sublimaze) 1 mcg/kg (maximum 50 mcg) slow IV; repeat once after 5 minutes as needed (maximum 200 mcg total dose) OR (max 100 mcg) intranasal via MAD (divide dose equally between each nare)
    • Preferentially use intranasal delivery via MAD for those where IV access may be difficult to obtain in a timely fashion
    • Use with caution if inhalational injury or respiratory symptoms
  • Expedite transport to nearest SAPTC if Trauma Alert
  • IV 0.9% NaCl per American Burn Association Guidelines
    • 0-5 years old                          125 ml/hr
    • 6-13 years old                       250 ml/hr
    • ≥ 14 years old                        500 ml/hr
  • If the patient meets any of the below criteria, transport to the nearest burn center
    • Burns ≥ 10% TBSA
    • Burns to face, hands, feet, genitalia, perineum, or major joints
    • 3rd degree burns to any age group
    • Electrical burns, including lightning injury
    • Chemical burns
    • Inhalation injury
    • Burn injury in patients with preexisting medical disorders that could complicate management, prolong recovery, or affect mortality
    • Any patients with burns and other traumatic injuries in which the burn injury poses the greatest risk of morbidity or mortality.  In such cases, if the trauma poses the greater immediate risk, the patient may be transported to the trauma center for stabilization and then transferred to the burn center.

Drowning – Pediatric

Basic Life Support

  • Spinal immobilization if pool related event or circumstances uncertain
  • Protect from heat loss
  • Supplemental 100% oxygen
    • Including ETCO2 level (35-45 normal)

Advanced Life Support

  • Perform Full Pediatric ALS Assessment and Treatment
  • Patients may develop delayed onset respiratory symptoms
    • Consider CPAP for patients with significant dyspnea or hypoxia if size allows
  • Refer to appropriate protocol if cardiac arrest present
  • Transport drownings to the nearest Pediatric hospital unless signs of trauma or diving injury, then transport to the nearest state approved Pediatric trauma center
  • Trauma Alert only if peds trauma alert criteria met, then transport to the nearest State Approved Pediatric Trauma Center

Note:  If parents are refusing transport after a submersion injury, medical control contact is required prior to accepting refusal.

Pediatric Trauma Alert Criteria

The presence of any of the 4 listed items below requires Trauma Alert activation:

  1. Meets color coded triage system (any one RED, or any two BLUE criteria met)
  2. Meets Local Criteria: High Voltage Electrical Injury (>1000 volts)
  3. Patient does not meet any above criteria but, in the judgment of the paramedic, should be transported as a Trauma Alert. Document reason on run report.

Component

BLUE Criteria

RED Criteria

Size

Any of the following:

  • Weight ≤ 11kg
  • Length ≤ 33 in. (Broselow)

N/A

Airway

N/A

  • Assisted Ventilation or Intubated1

Consciousness

Any of the following:

  • Amnesia
  • Loss of Consciousness

Any of the following:

  • Altered mental status2
  • Coma
  • Suspicion of spinal cord injury:
    • Paralysis or Loss of sensation

Circulation

Any of the following:

  • Palpable carotid or femoral pulse, but absent radial or pedal pulse
  • SBP < 90mmHg

Any of the following:

  • Faint or non-palpable carotid or femoral pulse
  • SBP < 50mmHg

Fracture

  • Single closed long bone fracture3

Any of the following:

  • Open long bone fracture3
  • Multiple fracture sites
  • Multiple dislocations

Cutaneous

N/A

Any of the following:

  • Major soft tissue disruption or flap avulsion4
  • 2°or 3° to ≥ 10% TBSA, or vital areas8
  • Amputation5
  • Penetrating injury to Head, Neck or Torso6

Mechanism of Injury (local criteria)

  • Ejection from Motor Vehicle (9)
  • Motor vehicle vs. pedestrian/Bicycle (Driver or Rider) (vehicle speed > 10 MPH)
  • Death in same vehicle
  • Rollover of motorized vehicle High – speed head on collision > 55MPH
  • Fall height of 10’ or more
  • MVC > 35 mph and pregnancy > 20 weeks
  1. Includes jaw thrust, frequent suctioning, or other airway adjuncts
  2. Includes drowsiness, lethargy, inability to follow commands, unresponsiveness
  3. Includes humerus, radius+ulna, femur, tibia+fibula; does not include isolated wrist and ankle fractures
  4. Major degloving injuries
  5. Amputations proximal to wrist or ankle
  6. Excluding superficial wounds where depth can be accurately determined
  7. Burns to face, hands, feet, genitalia, perineum, or major joints; any 3rd degree burns; electrical burns, lightning injuries, chemical burns and inhalation injury
  8. Excluding motorcycle, moped, all terrain vehicle, bicycle, open top vehicle, or open body of a pickup truck